Page 18 - The 'X' Chronicles Newspaper - August 2019
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18                   Notable Russian Space Progam Firsts





             Notable Russian Space                                                                        •  1968: First living beings to reach the Moon
                                                                                                             (circumlunar flights) and return unharmed to
                    Program Firsts                                                                           Earth, Russian tortoises and other lifeforms

                                                                                                             on Zond 5
                                                                                                          •  1969: First docking between two manned
          Two days after the United States announced its
                                                                                                             craft in Earth orbit and exchange of crews,
          intention to launch an artificial satellite, on July
                                                                                                             Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5
          31, 1956, the Soviet Union announced its
                                                                                                          •  1970: First soil samples automatically
          intention to do the same. Sputnik 1 was
                                                                                                             extracted and returned to Earth from another
          launched on October 4, 1957, beating the United
                                                                                                             celestial body, Luna 16
          States and stunning people all over the world.
                                                                                                          •  1970: First robotic space rover, Lunokhod 1
           •  1957: First intercontinental ballistic missile                                                 on the Moon.1970: First data received from
             and orbital launch vehicle, the R-7                                                             the surface of another planet of the Solar
                                                                                                             system (Venus), Venera 7
             Semyorka
                                                                                                          •  1971: First space station, Salyut 1
           •  1957: First satellite, Sputnik 1
                                                                                                          •  1971: First probe to impact the surface of
           •  1957: First animal in Earth orbit, the dog
                                                                                                             Mars, Mars 2
             Laika on Sputnik 2
                                                             on Vostok 1, Vostok program                  •  1971: First probe to land on Mars, Mars 3
           •  1959: First rocket ignition in Earth orbit,
                                                           •  1961: First person to spend over 24 hours in  •  1975: First probe to orbit  Venus, to make
             first man-made object to escape Earth's
                                                             space Gherman  Titov,  Vostok 2 (also first
             gravity, Luna 1                                                                                 soft landing on  Venus, first photos from
                                                             person to sleep in space).
           •  1959: First data communications, or          •  1962: First dual manned spaceflight, Vostok    surface of Venus, Venera 9
             telemetry, to and from outer space, Luna 1.                                                  •  1980: First Hispanic and Black person in
                                                             3 and Vostok 4                                  space, Arnaldo  Tamayo Méndez on Soyuz
           •  1959: First man-made object to pass near the
                                                           •  1962: First probe launched to Mars, Mars 1     38
             Moon, first man-made object in Heliocentric
                                                           •  1963: First woman in space,  Valentina      •  1984: First woman to walk in space,
             orbit, Luna 1
                                                             Tereshkova, Vostok 6                            Svetlana Savitskaya (Salyut 7 space
           •  1959: First probe to impact the Moon, Luna
                                                           •  1964: First multi-person crew (3), Voskhod 1   station)1986: First crew to visit two separate
             2
                                                           •  1965: First extra-vehicular activity (EVA),    space stations (Mir and Salyut 7)
           •  1959: First images of the moon's far side,
                                                             by Alexsei Leonov,[19] Voskhod 2
             Luna 3                                                                                       •  1986: First probes to deploy robotic balloons
                                                           •  1965: First probe to hit another planet of the
           •  1960: First animals to safely return from      Solar System (Venus), Venera 3                  into Venus atmosphere and to return pictures
             Earth orbit, the dogs Belka and Strelka on                                                      of a comet during close flyby Vega 1, Vega 2
                                                           •  1966: First probe to make a soft landing on  •  1986: First permanently manned space
             Sputnik 5.
                                                             and transmit from the surface of the Moon,      station, Mir, 1986–2001, with permanent
           •  1961: First probe launched to Venus, Venera
                                                             Luna 9                                          presence on board (1989–1999)
             1
                                                           •  1966: First probe in lunar orbit, Luna 10   •  1987: First crew to spend over one year in
           •  1961: First person in space (International
                                                           •  1967: First unmanned rendezvous and            space, Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov on
             definition) and in Earth orbit, Yuri Gagarin
                                                             docking, Cosmos 186/Cosmos 188.                 board of Soyuz TM-4 - Mir.
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